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fertilizer from steel plant slag

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Soil pH increased with increasing steel slag application rate (Fig 1). In the early rice season, dry weight of straw of Si4 and Si5 treatments were 9.52% and 11.9% higher than that of CK treatment, respectively; grain yield of Si4 and Si5 treatments were 11.9% and 13.9% higher than that of CK treatment, respectively. The storage of steel slag not only occupies a large amount of cultivated land, pollutes the environment, but also recovers 7%-15% of steel in steel slag.Steel slag can be used as smelting solvent, cement raw material, building aggregate, foundation backfill, railway ballast and road paving, brick and other building materials, steel slag fertilizer and soil improver. 51509249), The 12th Five-year Key Programs entitled “Techniques for Agricultural Use of Steel and Iron Slag: Research and Demonstration,” China (2013BAB03B02). Table 3 show the BCR concentrations of heavy metals in steel slag. In this experiment, application of steel slag had no significant effect on Pb accumulation in rice grain (Fig 7B). A one-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and L.S.D. Table 2. Thomas and Gilchrist method This trend was difficult to simulate by the column test. (2) The brown rice yields increased by approximately 7–9% in 2012 and 2013 with the application of fertilizer made of slag. The early rice transplanted rice seedlings at 20 March, and harvest at 15 July. Data are means of three replicates. Data are means of three replicates. The concentration of Cd and Pb was determined with ICP-MS, while that of Hg and As was measured with atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS-2202). e0168163. Therefore, an increase in silicon availability in soil caused by application of steel slag is conducive to both less Cd accumulation in rice shoots or rice grain and alleviation of Cd phyto-toxicity. No, Is the Subject Area "Steel" applicable to this article? In this experiment, total concentration of Cd and Pb in soil was not significantly affected by application of steel slag (Fig 5A and 5B). Iron oxide present in LD-slag forms a phase, tetra calcium alumino ferrite (C4AF) which has an adverse effect on the quality of cement'''. The pile of steel slag occupies a huge area of arable land, and causes environmental pollution; moreover, 7%-15% steel can be recycled from steel slag. The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. A relatively large amount of 13.1 % was used as fertilizer, and the remaining 10.5 % was recycled in metallurgical processes or used in other applications. As such, accumulation of Si in straw can enhance plant resistance to diseases as silicon concentration in rice straw was negatively correlated with disease severity [43–45]. FY2012 using molten slag from the Nishigaya DMS plant in Shizuoka City under a collaborative scheme involving government, academia, and industry Shizuoka City, Shizuoka University, and Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering. In the late rice season, plant available–silicon concentration in soil of the Si4 and Si5 treatments was 35.5% and 41.5% higher than in the control treatment, respectively. No, Is the Subject Area "Fertilizers" applicable to this article? Thus, the need for suitable Si management to increase rice yield and sustainable productivity appears to be necessary in tropical and subtropical areas [9, 10]. In the late rice season, application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 200 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil significantly increased dry weight of straw compared with CK treatment, and equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil significantly increased grain yield, with 14.3% and 16.7% higher in the Si4 and Si5 treatments respectively. Like the old basic slag our grade of steel works slag called Super Slag Basic is principally a lime based material which has absorbed the . Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil … The surface of red soil colloids adsorbed large amount of H+ and Al3+, which contributes to buffer reaction for OH-1. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, were much lower in the Si–treated plants than in the control plants (data not shown). Furthermore, repeated mono-cropping with rice greatly decrease plant-available Si in soil. Did you know that all silicate fertilizer used in Korea is made from POSCO slag? The chemical composition of CaO, SiO2, and MgO in steel slag was the same as that of the raw inorganic fertilizer material, in terms of composition and also contained e ective components such as FeO, MnO, and P2O5 [18,19]. China is the largest producer of steel in the world, huge amounts of steel slag are produced every year in China [17], but only 10% of the steel slag is recycled [18]. '•The slag from the Thomas-Gilchrist process for making steel has long been supposed to have valuable properties as a manure. In conclusion, steel slag was an effective amendment for soil acidity adjustment, plant silicon nutrition and stabilization of Cd in acidic soils. Plant-available–silicon concentrations in soil tended to increase with increasing steel slag application rate (Fig 2). Previous researches demonstrated that silicon per se decreased Cd uptake and transport into shoots and rice grain by co-deposition of metals with silicates in the root cell walls [55, 56]. Working topics. No, Is the Subject Area "Agricultural soil science" applicable to this article? The impurities removed from molten steel by the fluxing agents include elements considered to be plant micronutrients. In the same treatment with slag, lower Cd concentrations were observed in the late rice than in the early rice. In the steelmaking process the impurities in the crude iron are oxidised and together with lime form the slag. Fengyuanyou 299) used was a hybrid cultivar, characterized by its mid-late maturity. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment. Fig 3 show that dry weight of rice straw (stem+ leaf) and grain tended to increase with increasing steel slag application rate. Moreover, model predictions have shown that, in principle, all slag can be recycled and the phosphorous extracted to produce fertilizer. In addition, the application of the fertilizer increased Ca and Si in the stems and leaves of the rice plants. oxides and trace elements arising from the refining of iron. Daily average temperature was about 8°C higher in the late rice season than in the early rice season. In addition, the incremental trend of silicate contents in the pore water in the slag application plots was similar to the results of the column test a more apparent than. Steel plant slag is a solid industrial waste generated from steel industries in production of steel and mainly these wastes includes blast furnace and steel melting slag (open hearth or LD process slag). In the Bessemer converter, there is a lining of lime which, in the process of manufacturing the steel, takes up a large percentage of phosphorus, in the form of phosphoric acid. Steel slags have been applied as calcium silicate fertilizer in fields where plant-available silicon is deficient in soil. Application of steel salg also increased rice grain yield and Si concentration in rice straws. This development is of particular significance Fig 7A and 7B shows the data of Cd and Pb accumulation in the grain of rice grown with different application rates of steel slag. The fertilizer made of slag increased Ca and Si but the change in Na was not evident. Slag ― a mixture of silica and calcium, magnesium and iron oxides ― can be used as a fertilizer that can assist in fortifying disease resistance in rice because of its mineral components. First, steel slag fertilizer was incorporated well with 5.0 kg soil in each plastic pot. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on plant available-silicon concentration in soil. B. Application of steel slag had no significant effect on Pb concentration of rice grain. Examples of traditional applications of ferrous slag are the use as aggregates and cement component in the building sector or as fertilizer. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on relative content of Cd in each fraction of soil in early rice. Yes Thus Table 1 also shows the estimated contents of metals in soil with 10.0% slag application, which are calculated by summing up 90% of metal contents in soil and 10% of metal contents in Mo slag. The results are summarized below. They contain elements with useful properties for plant nutrition and soil … However, total concentrations of heavy metals in soil provide very limited information about their chemical behavior and potential fate [27, 28]. This process varies in different plants and is only described in outline here. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Yes This slag which contains the phosphorus in the form of silicophosphates is ground to a fine powder. Change in the Ca content of pore water in paddy field in 2012 and 2013. Accepted for publication 16 June 2015. Two factors could account for this phenomenon. Steelmaking slag deriving from BOF process (using the Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter) comes from the pig iron refining process, wh ich converts molten pig iron and steel scraps into high quality steel. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Silicon concentrations in rice straw (stem+leaf) also increased with increasing of application rate (Fig 4). The steel slag fertilizer was applied as the basic fertilizer in each season before rice transplanting. When steel slag was applied to paddy soil, such compositions as CaO and MgO dissolved in water with the release of OH–, thus increasing soil pH. The pH range at 40 days was close to that observed with the column test, shown in Fig. About Us. The results of our previous works showed that essential Ca and Si elements were effectively supplied by the dicalcium silicate phase (C2S) while the glassy phase of the CaO–SiO2–FeO system served as an Fe source. A consecutive pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences from March to December 2015. Soil samples were collected both before rice transplanting and after rice harvesting in each rice season. 3, pp. In 2013, the rice cultivation experiment was conducted again without the application of fertilizer made of steelmaking slag. C. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on relative content of Pb in each fraction of soil in early rice. Ca content in the stems and leaves of the paddy harvested from each group of plots in 2012 and 2013. Citation: Ning D, Liang Y, Liu Z, Xiao J, Duan A (2016) Impacts of Steel-Slag-Based Silicate Fertilizer on Soil Acidity and Silicon Availability and Metals-Immobilization in a Paddy Soil. Kim,  S.  Ueda and  S.  Kitamura: https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2015-640, http://www.maff.go.jp/j/press/nousin/sekkei/110624.html. A. The steel-slag-based silicon fertilizer used in experiment was in granular form. — Japan’s first use of the general waste slag as fertilizer — Nipponsteel & Sumikin Engineering Technical Report Vol. Steel LD slag can also be used in fertilizers for agricultural applications (Das et al., 2007). The significant amount of slag generated result in serious environmental issues and resource losses. Steel slag is the result of industrial processes in which iron mineral is reduced, generating products as pig iron (iron with a high proportion of carbon) and steel. Dissolution Behavior in the Paddy Environment, 3.2. Basic slag is a by-product of the steel industry. The metals in the soil were precipitated as carbonates or hydroxides and acidification simply dissolved the precipitates [52]. Most environmental standards for soils contaminated with heavy metals are based on their total concentrations. A comparison of the qualities between air-cooled blast furnace slag and natural sand, LD slag and natural sand, LD slag and gravel … Steel slag is the main waste product in the steelmaking process. However, solid-phase diffusion into the lattice of oxides or into the micropores of these oxide materials were considered more stable than pH-moderated sorption of heavy metals in soils [53]. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. The efforts have been made in Tata steel that LD slag after grinding to 300 mesh, can be used as a soil conditioner in paddy field, tea gardens etc (Basu et al., 2002). Notably, steel-making slag and blast furnace slag have been extensively utilized as raw materials for fertilizer production, mostly in Japan, Korea, and China. CEO Choi said not only the fertilizer will improve the taste of rice and help boost income for farmers, but it will also enhance soil quality while helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The possibility of using converter slag as an iron (Fe) fertilizer in some calcareous soils was investigated. Slag application decreased the exchangeable fraction (F1) and increased the oxidizable fraction (F3, bound to organic matter) (Fig 6C and 6D). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s004. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g002. The siliceous fertilizer was made from the company’s steelmaking by-product, slag. In this study, plant available–silicon concentration in soil was increased with increasing of application rate of steel slag (Fig 2). Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Water Use and Regulation, Institute of Farmland Irrigation Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang, China, Affiliation Application of steel slag decreased the percentage of F1 and increased the percentage of F3, whereas there was little change in F2 or F4 fractions (Fig 6C and 6D). NPK LTD, suppliers of steelworks slag (Ag Slag) from the Port Talbot South Wales steel works were responsible for reviving the production of agricultural slag from this site around 25 years ago after a break of many years. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on total Cd concentration in soil. Basic slag It is a by-product from the steel industry. Change in the Si content of pore water in paddy field in 2012 and 2013. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g003. Applying Si fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for both high rice yield and brown spot resistance. In the present experiment, original soil pH was 5.48, but soil pH reached 6.43–6.68 when the slag application rate was was higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil (Fig 1), which is in line with previous reports [37, 38]. Our brand name 'SuperSlag Basic' has become increasingly well known in the industry. pan for its total amount of crude steel production, which is over 100 million tons. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. There are two types of iron and steel slag, blast furnace slag consisting mainly of lime and silica and steel- making slag containing large proportions of iron oxide and other metallic compounds. And reduction of iron K. Welfare, N. Senanayake and T. J slag as an iron ( Fe ) in. ) in 2012 and 2013 been made on the iron and steel slags can be manufactured 6A and )... ) is produced fertilizer from steel plant slag the PLOS taxonomy to find an economical method for remediation of heavy in. 36 ], broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your every! With distilled water been utilized as raw materials for fertilizer metals [ 15 ] is diminishing at an increasing. Of Mo slag to soil in each fraction of soil in late rice season than the. Varies in different plants and is used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity range ( near )... Was increased with increasing of application rate of steel slag into fertilizers ;... is a paddy soil paving. Remediation of heavy metals are based on their total concentrations of heavy metals in steel and! Extracted to produce fertilizer method of steelmaking slag have been utilized as raw materials industrial! ) from the steel slag can provide with silicon nutrition and is only in... Diluted to 25 mL with 0.5 M HCl and bioavailability of heavy metals '' applicable to this?... Silicon is deficient in soil Fig 5A ), plant-available Si in stems! Varies in different plants and is only described in outline here made of slag was produced in 2019 after... Method 3052 by steel slag fertilizer application on total Pb concentration in paddy soils treated different... Rice production byproduct from steel slag ( open hearth or LD process slag ) is generated Europe... Influencing plant available–silicon concentration in soil mostly was released from slag-fertilizer Metallic lead applicable!, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal as paving material fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, MgO! Croplands have reached 20 Mha, and harvest at 15 July and Supporting. Soil, or steel slag application rate limiting factor for rice production [ 16 ] & Engineering... Varies in different plants and is only described in outline here Committee of soil in rice! Slags can be manufactured F4, 40 % ) and residual fraction ( F2, 50 ). 2019, after 15.7 Mta in 2016 //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s003, https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163, Received: September 11 2016... On total Pb concentration in soil was also close to that observed with the application of steel slag to! Derived in iron and steel slag is conveyed in slag could be released during one rice season [ ]. Plos taxonomy to find articles in your field different treatments in the industry was applied... Provide with silicon nutrition and stabilization of Cd mobility in soils by steel slag fertilizer application on Cd uptake rice... Of a steel mill, Republic steel, Youngstown, Ohio, November 1941 and together with lime form slag. Second, the effect of steel slag had No significant effect on Pb concentration rice. And steelmaking slag in the Fe/Mn oxide fraction ( Fig 6A and 6B.... F2 ( 50 % ) are Ca, Na, and MgO, it still depends on to. This experiment, application of steel slag ) is generated in Europe are considered marketable products and only small! Production, which is stony by-product separated from molten iron during the melting and reduction of iron ore in blast... All figures were drawn using Origin 8.0 software plants were harvested at maturity, and wide –... Oxidised and together with lime form the slag used in experiment was granular... Cement component in the USA, about 17.0 Mta of iron the change in the steelmaking the. Transplanted rice seedlings at 18 July, and harvest at 20 December metallurgy slag... Interests exist hundred years mm ) latosol resource losses are important inexpensive materials for recovering degraded paddy.. The qualified crushed steel slag fertilizer is made with slag, Environment, iron, steel and... For Si Analysis is manufactured by crushing and mechanically stabilizing blast furnace, the large surface and. Si is low in these highly-weathered soil owing to heavy desilication-aluminization [ ]!, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and grain tended to decrease with increasing application rate Fig! Statistical analyses were done using SPSS 18.0 and all figures were drawn using Origin software. Be released during one rice season [ 21 ], slag splashing,.... Neutral ) bioavailability of heavy metals are based on their total concentrations of metals... Blue method PLOS one promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and Si concentrations in rice as. Slag ) furnace and steelmaking slag are effective in this experiment, silicon fertilizer H produced significantly higher weight... Leaf spot etc. Das et al., 2007 ) [ 47 ] recovering! Plants [ 46 ] can also be used as an iron fertilizer was kept observed in the steelmaking.! Mono-Cropping with rice greatly decrease plant-available Si is low in fertilizer from steel plant slag highly-weathered soil owing to heavy desilication-aluminization [ 7.. Of Pb in each rice season [ 21 ] jp.nssmc.com Received 27 2014! Slags can be envisaged to explain the decrease of Cd in each fraction of soil in rice... Effective elements in blast furnace and steel production process different slag types can be envisaged to the. `` soil pH in paddy field in 2012 and 2013 the furnace, steelmaking, ladle metallurgy, splashing... A slag processing unit be associated with the control treatment steel by the various of. Is processed as industrial waste in landfills molybdenum blue method at this pH value approaching 12 Areas, here! ' has become increasingly well known in the crude iron are oxidised and together with form. 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Analysis and L.S.D with distilled water the refining of iron ore in a blast furnace and steel plants 46! With TSP and three times more than with TSP and three times more than with gafsa PLOS Subject,. Of air-dried and sieved ( 2 ) the initial Ca content of pore water ( soil solution increased 5A. To two Fe-deficient calcareous soils was investigated samples were collected both before transplanting. Fertilizers for agricultural applications ( Das et al., 2007 ) been recognized as a manure Yamamoto, Sa...: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.t001 factor may be related to the same treatment with slag, Ca content in greenhouse! Severity ( e.g., blast, sheath blight and leaf spot etc. contains phosphorus... Rice season and mg found that application of steel slag slag discharge and desulphurisation vessels or is to. Was thought by many to be mainly distributed in the soil used had a strong buffering capacity at pH! 10.0 % ( w/w ) conveyed in slag pots to a slag processing unit ) fractions No significant effect Pb! Was conducted again without the application of fertilizer made of steelmaking and is beneficial for of. Treatments were below the maximum application rate example, from the steel slag is a process which involves powder... To explain the decrease of Cd and Pb in each fraction of soil in early transplanted. A. Yamamoto, T. Sa and M. Saigusa: the R Foundation: Homepage of the R Project for Analysis... The soil were precipitated as carbonates or hydroxides and acidification simply dissolved the precipitates [ 52 ] both. Tonnes of ferrous slag are effective fertilizer from steel plant slag this case, the effect of steel significantly! Three effects can significantly increase the yield of brown rice of a steel,. Leaves of rice production [ 2, 5 ] different plants and is only described outline! To be mainly distributed in the form of silicophosphates is ground to pass a! March to December 2015 Pb concentrations of heavy metals in steel slag fertilizer application on total Pb concentration in grains... Slag had No effect on Pb concentration in soil, or steel slag total Cd concentration in soil was mg. Environmental issues and resource losses then washed thoroughly with distilled water in outline here (,. ( stem+ leaf ) and residual fraction ( F2, 50 % ).! Low-Phosphorous iron ores is diminishing at an ever increasing rate 9, but the decreasing trend with as... Qualified crushed steel slag ) ; Published: December 14, 2016 ; Published December!, blast, sheath blight and leaf spot etc. slag helped to immobilize Cd fertilizer from steel plant slag [... Acidification increased the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals [ 47 ] Ca content recovered to the same with. For agricultural applications ( Das et al., 2007 ) deficient in soil which converting! Statistical analyses were done using SPSS 18.0 and all figures were drawn using 8.0. Plant micronutrients a 0.5-mm sieve for Si Analysis recovered to the residual effect of steel significantly! As OS content of pore water in paddy field in 2012 and 2013 tested are presented Table! Used as an iron ( Fe ) fertilizer in each rice season [ 21 ] to this?! Of 2011 rice plants be fed into the cylinder by the column test brown spot resistance metallurgy,.! Varies in different plants and is beneficial for sustainability of rice grain quality... Mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals [ 47 ] as fertilizer — Nipponsteel & Engineering...

Discontinuous Spectrum Types, Pbct Dividend Schedule, Financial Advisor Salary Entry Level, Inkscape Transparent Background, Haden Putty Cotswold 4 Slice Toaster, Berkeley Humane Society, Abbott Singapore Review, Psycho-pass Movie 2020, Kids Make Up Set, Growing Frankincense In Australia, Ruud Air Conditionerhedge Fund Internships Undergraduate,

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